Wukari International Studies Journal 2024-05-30T16:17:06+00:00 Ochoga Edwin Ochoga Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Wukari International Studies Journal</strong> is an annual publication of <strong>Wukari International Studies Group (WISG)</strong>, domiciled in the Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State.</p> SYNERGY BETWEEN THE YOUTH AND A SECURED NATION: AN ATTEMPT TO DEVELOP NIGERIA THROUGH POLITICS AND ELECTORAL REMINISCENCE 2024-05-21T18:35:12+00:00 ABDULKAREEM ONAKOYA <p>Insecurity is another factor battling the political development of Nigeria. It has been observed over the years that no amount of political awareness of the populace, the country will remain underdeveloped politically until this issue is resolved. However, the youths have a lot of roles to play in order to restore the thrust in the government through their participation in the political process and combating with all their strengths the insecurity of the nation. The study therefore aims at examining these roles and some of the impacts of the persistent insecurity on political development in the country. Survey research method with the use of questionnaire to garner responses from various stakeholders and politicians was adopted by the researcher. System Theory was used to navigate the study with expected findings. The result of findings of the study shows that the youths can participate actively in the political affairs of the nation by; joining political parties of their choice, shunning all political violence, engaging in peaceful political rallies and campaigns and ultimately vying for elective positions in the country. It also identifies political apathy, low turnout of voters during elections, disinterest in politics, lack of trust in the leadership and fear of death and intimidation as some impacts of insecurity on political participation of the youths in Nigeria. &nbsp;The study thereby recommends that; godliness, provision of employment opportunities by the government, secured borders, good parental care etc will improve on the security state of the nation.</p> 2024-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) ANATOMY OF CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE FARMER-HERDER CONFLICT ON FOOD SECURITY IN BENUE STATE, 2015-2023 2024-05-21T18:39:36+00:00 ACHANYA JULIUS JOHN VARZOA LUMA <p>Benue State has recorded significant increase in farmer-herder conflict and major drawbacks in communal coexistence. This study examines the causes of the conflict and its effects on food security in the state. The structural conflict theory was used in analyzing the major variables while descriptive documentary design involving a mix of exploratory interview, Focus Group Discussion, observation, analyses of official documents and secondary data was utilized to triangulate evidence. Twenty (20) participants were purposively drawn from the population in the study area for interviews and focused group discussions and their responses were transcribed, presented and analyzed in a descriptive form using thematic headings. Deriving from the study findings, the results generated indicated that the underlying cause of the farmer-herder conflict in Benue State is climate change with its attendant consequence of herders migrating from the north to the state in search of pasture and water points. However, trigger causes muted by respondents include but not limited to illegal invasion of farms and destruction of crops by cattle, cattle rustling and theft; passage of the Open Grazing Prohibition and Ranches Establishment Law 2017, among others. Effects of the conflict on food security include the destruction of human lives and animals, farmlands and properties, drop in food production, hike in food prices, and rise in poverty level among the people, social dislocation and population displacement, among others. Against this backdrop, the study recommends that aside intensifying campaigns and actions against climate change, the Benue State Government and its critical stakeholders should strengthen and improve local peace building and reconciliation systems, among others.</p> 2024-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) ECONOMIC HISTORY OF IGALA WOMEN IN KOGI STATE, 1900 – 2020 2024-05-21T18:47:50+00:00 SOPHIA OJOCHOGWU ADOFU <p>This paper explores the economic history of Igala women in Kogi State, Nigeria. It delves into the historical context of Igala society, examining the traditional roles and economic activities of women within the community. Through a comprehensive analysis of historical records, oral traditions, and scholarly research, this paper elucidates the significant contributions of Igala women to the economic development and sustenance of their families and communities. Furthermore, it discusses the challenges and transformations experienced by Igala women in the face of modernization and socio-economic changes. By shedding light on the economic endeavors of Igala women, this paper contributes to a deeper understanding of gender dynamics and economic development in Nigerian society.</p> 2024-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) CHRISTIAN RELIGION AND COUNSELLING FOR VALUE RE-ORIENTATION IN POLITICAL LEADERSHIP 2024-05-22T17:38:55+00:00 ADA ANYEBE <p>Christian religion by its nature inspires feelings of godliness, integrity, honesty. perseverance, goodness, rectitude, brotherly kindness, love, peace with God, and with others. This may be a powerful instrument for fostering honesty in our political leadership. Politics from every indication is the pursuit, possession, and exercise of power in a society as well as the ability to impact the society uprightly. There is always a meeting point between Christian religion and counseling for re-orientation in political leadership. Religion no doubt has been a strong determining factor when it comes to the issue of governance and policy formulation. Looking at Nigeria, for example, we have Christian religion as one of the dominant religions which affects political leadership and the effect could be positive or negative. Many studies have been undertaken on the relationship between Christian religion and counseling for value re-orientation in political leadership, however, the aspect of the direct effect of Christian religion on counseling for value re-orientation is somehow neglected. This neglect has prompted this study which is aimed at exploring the effect of Christian religion on counseling for value re-orientation in political leadership in Nigeria. The study relies mainly on data obtained from secondary sources such as publications of relevant agencies, newspapers, unpublished works, and internet materials. The data will be contextually analysed to provide insight in terms of effect of Christian religion on counseling for value re-orientation in political leadership in the country.</p> 2024-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) FARMERS-HERDERS CONFLICTS AND FOOD INSECURITY IN NIGERIA 2024-05-22T17:43:22+00:00 DAUPAMOWEI HENRY ASANEBI <p><em>The past few years have seen an upsurge in farmers and herders conflicts in Nigeria, especially in the North Central, North East, and South East regions of the nation, making Nigeria high in the index of unsafe nations around the globe. These conflicts have a terrible impact on the economy of the country, which is already suffering from food shortages and insecurity as well as constant price rises for food. As a result of the aforementioned, the paper focuses on investigating the root causes of farmers-herdsmen conflicts and how these conflicts affect the availability and cost of basic staple foods. A qualitative research approach was adopted, and data were gathered through a thorough desk literature review. The Thomas Malthus Resource Scarcity theory was adopted, which underpinned the conflagration between farmers and herders over competition for available limited resources such as grazing lands and water, etc. The paper makes the case that persistent farmers-herders conflicts have an impact on (i) food shortages and insecurity, as many farmers were compelled to flee their farms for safety. The contention is that in a crisis situation, agricultural activities would either cease to exist or cannot flourish; (ii) result in price increases for scarce foods; and (iii) inevitably lower people's standard of living. Furthermore, given the rise in tensions between farmers and herdsmen and the significant implications for the nation, the study recommends the Nigerian government enact stringent agricultural policies that support agricultural activities in order to ensure food security while also providing grazing lands for herders in their area.</em></p> 2024-05-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) QATAR 2022 FIFA WORLD CUP: MULTI-CULTURALISM OR CLASH OF CIVILIZATION 2024-05-26T16:09:07+00:00 BALARABE ABUBAKAR BELLO TUKUR ABDULKADIR <p>This paper examines FIFA World Cup 2022 in Qatar in order to ascertain whether the event will promote multiculturalism or lead to a clash of civilizations. Qatar is the host nation for the 2022 FIFA World Cup and is a relatively small, but wealthy nation located in the Middle East, and is home to a diverse array of ethnic and cultural groups. The paper will analyze the potential benefits Qatar may gain in hosting the 2022 FIFA World Cup and how these benefits may lead to increased multiculturalism in the region. Additionally, the paper will examine the potential for the event to lead to a clash of civilizations, and the implications that could have. The Theory of Cultural Pluralism was adopted to serve as a theoretical base for this paper. The paper adopts qualitative analysis to serve as a method for data collection; it draws on a variety of research sources, including academic journals, news articles, and reports from international organizations. Overall, this paper assess Qatar’s motives for hosting the event, the potential for increased multiculturalism, the potential for a clash of civilizations, and the potential implications for human rights in the region.</p> 2024-04-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) COMBATTING CULTISM IN NIGERIA’S DIGITAL SOCIETY BY LEVERAGING YOUTHPRENUERSHIP FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 2024-05-26T16:15:27+00:00 CHIDI FRANKLIN UZOIGWE OZINNA OKOYE <p>It is obvious that literature abound on cultism, community development, youth and youthpreneurship but combating cultism in Nigeria’s digital society by leveraging youthpreneurship for community development is evidently not in existence, creating a gap which this paper seeks to fill by &nbsp;exploring the multifaceted approach required to address cultism in Nigeria's digitalized society, highlighting the pivotal role of youth entrepreneurship in offering viable alternatives for positive youth engagement. It traces the historical roots of cultism and secret societies in Nigeria to the pre-colonial era, with particular focus on their emergence in university settings in 1952. The study aims to identify the underlying factors contributing to cultism and its detrimental impact on community development, advocating for the implementation of youthpreneurship initiatives as a solution. Employing a survey design, the research gathers quantitative data through questionnaires. Its findings indicate that cultism is deeply entrenched in Nigerian society, fueled by factors such as poverty, unemployment, and political instability. The paper recommends the effective implementation of youth development policies, including skills training, mentorship programs, and access to funding, to nurture entrepreneurial spirit among youth and foster innovation.</p> 2024-04-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) EFFECT OF EMPLOYEES’ RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS IN AGATU LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATIONAL AUTHORITY 2024-05-27T13:49:48+00:00 UCHERWUHE SAMUEL IGBABEE <p><em>The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of employee relationship management on managerial effectiveness. The specific objectives of the study are to determine effect of communication, shared values/goals, and employee trust on managerial effectiveness in Agatu Local Government Education Authority, Benue State, Nigeria. &nbsp;The study adopted survey research design, the sample size of 293 selected from a population of 1100 employees. The study found a significant positive effect of employees’ relationship management on managerial effectiveness. The studyconcludedthat organizations should invest more in a strong employees’ relationships management as it significantly affects managerial effectiveness, specifically, communication, shared goals/values and trust have a significant positive effect on managerial effectiveness.The study recommended that communication should be highly invested into as every organization need effective communication for managerial effectiveness, Local Government Education Authorities should always enshrine a culture-oriented principles that can intimate employees with organizational goals/shared values for flexible operations that enhances managerial effectiveness and management of Local Government Education Authorities should provide an environment of trust that allows employees to actively participate in the decision-making process. This is because a working environment with a highly trusting atmosphere is the foundation for harm</em>onious employees’ relationship.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) EFFECT OF FRINGE BENEFITS ON EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT IN ORACLE BUSINESS LIMITED, MAKURDI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA 2024-05-27T14:07:44+00:00 AKAA RICHIE BEM ANYAM NGUTOR JOSEPH TERNGU MSHIAONDO <p>The study examined the effect of fringe benefits on employee commitment in Oracle Business Limited, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Specifically, the paper determined the effect of welfare schemes on employee commitment in Oracle Business Limited, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, and assessed the effect of training on employee commitment in Oracle Business Limited, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised of four hundred and filthy-three 453 staff of Oracle Business Limited, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Used a representative sample using Burley (1964) population allocation formula (Kumar, 1976) of 213. The study's findings have shown that welfare scheme and training are reliable and significant indicators of employee commitment in Oracle Business Limited, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. The study concludes that fringe benefits have significant effect on employee commitment in Oracle Business Limited, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. The study recommended among others the management of Oracle Business Limited Makurdi, Benue State should uphold and continue to promote fringe benefits policies and practices in its operations given the importance and benefits that fringe benefits provide to the organization. Management should also ensure that employees who dedicate individual resources to achieve set objectives are rewarded.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) TEAMWORK AND EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN BENUE INVESTMENT AND PROPERTY COMPANY, MAKURDI, BENUE STATE 2024-05-27T14:18:52+00:00 TOR NORA <p><em>The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between teamwork and employee satisfaction in Benue Investment and Property Company, Makurdi. Specific objectives were to: ascertain if team trust, verify if esprit de Corp and team communication with employee satisfaction in Benue Investment and Property Company, Makurdi, Benue State. The study adopted survey research design. The population of the study was 118, census sampling technique was used to retain the whole population as sample size. The study found that Team trust, espirit de Corp and team Communication have significant effect on employee satisfaction in Benue Investment and Property Company, Makurdi, Benue State. Based on the results the study concludes that, the independent variables of teamwork (team trust, espirit de corp, and team communication) are predictors of employee satisfaction (employee engagement, employee retention and employee feedback) in Benue Investment and Property Company, Makurdi, Benue State. The study recommended that<strong>, </strong>BIPC management should promote team trust among organization members which will thereafter enable an individual to put more of his/her resources into tasks that will bring about organizational performance. Teamwork should be seen as an effective operational strategy and adopted not as an ad hoc strategy but one that should be sustained, BIPC should promote espirit de corp in designing tasks and activities based on team to get better and desired results, teamwork activity within the organization is very much beneficial and its effect is directly on employee performance. When an employee acquires adequate opportunities of teamwork his/her performance automatically improves and he/she will be satisfied with the job, and BIPC should promote team communication among team members in the organizations. This is because anything accomplished by humans involves communication and inadequate communications between people may lead to the poor achievement of goals.</em></p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) EFFECT OF RETIREMENT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES ON QUALITY OF RETIREE’S LIFE IN NIGERIA 2024-05-29T08:29:38+00:00 AKORGA MAMKPEGA CLEMENT IKYUMEN PHILIP ORSAA <p>The study is to examine the effect of retirement management strategies on quality of retiree’s life in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to; determine the effect of early retirement plaining on quality of retiree’s life in Benue state in Nigeria and examine the effect of pension optimization on quality of retiree’s life of Benue state in Nigeria. The population of the study comprised of seven thousand7000 pensionaries in Makurdi, Benue State from 2020 to 2023 from civil service. Used a representative sample, a multi-stage random sampling design was used in selecting the required sample for the study. The study's findings have shown that early retirement planning and pension optimisation are reliable and significant indicators of quality of retiree’s life in Benue state in Nigeria. The study concludes that retirement management strategies has significant effect on quality of retiree’s life in Benue state in Nigeria. The study recommended among others the government of Benue State to provide comprehensive financial education programs to employees well before retirement age to promote savings and investment habits to aid their early retirement planning. Encourage the use of financial advisors or counsellors to help retirees manage their finances effectively.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) EFFECT OF BASIC AMENITIES ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN BENUE STATE NIGERIA 2024-05-29T08:33:10+00:00 ONYOWO REBECCA ATUNGWU <p>The study determined the effect of basic amenities on socioeconomic development of rural areas in Benue State, Nigeria. The study specifically determined the effect of primary healthcare, pipe-borne water, education, and rural electrification on socioeconomic development of rural areas in Benue State, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design and data were collected using structured questionnaire. The population of the study consists of 1,023, 000 people in three selected local government areas in Benue State namely, Vandeikya, Buruku and Ogbadibo. A sample size of 400 was determined using Taro Yamane’s formula. The data collected were analysed using inferential statistics (regression analysis). Findings of the study indicated that primary healthcare, pipe-borne water, education, and rural electrification have significant effect on socioeconomic development of rural areas in Benue State, Nigeria. The study concluded that basic amenities have helped in the transformation of rural areas in Benue State. It recommended amongst others that Local government areas in Benue State should always provide healthcare facilities and improve on healthcare services for the rural dwellers. This will help to improve the living conditions of the people in rural areas, Local government councils in Benue State should always ensure that water is made available and accessible to rural dwellers to help alleviate their sufferings. Local government should also ensure the maintenance and repair of pipe-borne water in rural areas, Local government areas in Benue State should assist the state government in the establishment and maintenance of rural education as well as ensure the provision of textbooks and audio-visual materials in primary schools to help the plight of the less privileged and to help improve rural electrification, local government areas in Benue State should always provide support and constant maintenance for steady electrification as it has the highest contribution to socioeconomic development of rural areas in Benue state, Nigeria.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) THE IMPACT OF RURAL WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF KUSTIM WOMEN 2013 2024-05-29T08:36:57+00:00 GUMAR MANJI KEFAS GREGORY GOTULGOTOM IFEAGWU CHRISTOPHER UCHECHUKWU <p>Agriculture is the cornerstone of many African economics especially in sub-Saharan Africa.&nbsp; It provides a relatively large portion of the Gross Domestic product (GDP) in Sub-Saharan African.&nbsp; And it is also the main source of foreign currency.&nbsp; Agriculture is important to thee Economic Growth of most Nigeria’s societies. It is also the principal source of food and livelihood in the rural areas. The study is centered on women participation in agricultural activities.&nbsp; The research is set to investigate the impact of women participation in Agricultural activities study of Kustium Women2013 -2023.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) THE POLITICS OF INSECURITY REPORTAGE IN NORTHERN NIGERIA 2024-05-29T12:36:31+00:00 ISA SA’IDU <p>Nigeria is faced with different challenges that nearly comatose the security architecture of the country. In the geopolitical North, it started as mere conflict over access to land largely involving herders and farmers. It metamorphosed to gangsterism that was restricted to cattle rustling. The challenge has now snowballed into full-pledged entrepreneurial terrorism where the actors amass wealth through kidnapping, banditry, and other forms of criminal activities. Nowadays, no one is guaranteed of his safety in Nigeria, North in particular. With the use of the Political Economy of Communication, Framing, Social Responsibility, and Agenda Setting Theories, the paper reviewed relevant literature and established how Nigerian media used their organisations to report the phenomenon of insecurity both for and against the country’s national interest.The study found that many media outlets, both new and conventional, have over the years engaged inan unethical practice that both exacerbates security challenges as well as threatens Nigeria’s corporate existence. It is based on the foregoing that this paper analyses the politics – issues of religion, market, ideology, ethnicity, regionalism, and ownership - that shrouded the coverage of security challenges and the role being played by journalists in fueling or taming the security challenges in Nigeria.This is the major contribution of the paper to the existing literature, as it brought to the fore the character of the media in its reportage of insecurity in Nigeria, and this makes this research unique. Documented literature and participant observationmethods form the basis upon which the paper was constructed. The coverage of insecurity must be married with patriotism to safeguard the sovereignty and corporate existence of Nigeria. It is therefore instructive for Nigerian media to always report insecurity and conflict from a nationalistic perspective, which entails restraint in language use, framing of stories to promote national interest as well as de-escalation of tension.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) THE PREFERENCE OF FOREIGN-BASED (MIGRANT) PLAYERS OVER HOME-BASED PLAYERS IN THE SUPER EAGLES OF NIGERIA: A COLORATION OF ‘COLONIAL MENTALITY’ 2024-05-29T12:39:24+00:00 JOSEPH OKECHUKWU NWOKE <p><em>Nigeriais blessed with talented footballers. There abound Nigerian players in the Nigeria Professional Football League and foreign leagues. The Nigeria Football Federation(NFF) is in charge of running football in Nigeria as it superintends over the Nigerian national football teams and recruit coaches. Both home-based and foreign-based players were always invited to the camp of the Super Eagles when there was a competition. However,when it was time for the final list to be drawn there might not be any home-based players in the list or there might be an insignificant number that might end up not playing in such competition.There has been a lot of talk on the preference of foreign-based players over home-based players in the Super Eagles team.Hence, this study analyses the rate of selection in terms of percentage of home-based and foreign-based players in the Super Eagles team by some selected foreign and Nigerian coaches.The Hamitic hypothesis of Seligman is applied to show the nexus to the preference for foreign-based players.This study makes use of&nbsp;&nbsp; primary and tertiary sources of data.Findings reveal that not only foreign coaches solely relied on foreign-based players, as some Nigerian coaches were equally masterminds of the unpatriotic act. Also, home-based players can be instrumental to performance of the team as was displayed in the 1990 and 2013 African Cup of Nations.This study recommends that a law should be passed forcing the coach to include at least four home-based players on the field of play whenever the team is in action.</em></p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF CIVILIAN CONTROL OF THE NIGERIAN MILITARY UNDER DEMOCRATIC DISPENSATIONS 2024-05-29T14:43:29+00:00 MOHAMMED LAWAL TAFIDA <p>A central question in civil-military relations literature is on how civilian control of the military takes place in a State. In this respect, the challenge in instituting such control exists in a country that has at different times experienced both military and civilian governments. Since independence, Nigeria has so far witnessed three civilian dispensations- the First, Second and On-going Fourth Republics. In these periods, the military was under the control of civilian-led parliamentary and presidential democracies. This paper conceptualises the nature of civilian control of the military in these dispensations by assessing the frameworks, challenges and outcomes. Using liberal-democratic prescriptions that define civilian control as conceptual framework, it employs the historical, constitutional, structural and institutional approaches as analytical tools. The paper argues that despite the existence of constitutional provisions, structural weaknesses inherent in democratic institutions of these dispensations have affected the nature, basis and outcomes of civilian control of the military.</p> 2024-04-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) NIGERIAN YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND SECURITY ISSUES: EVALUATING THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPTION 2024-05-29T14:52:29+00:00 MUSA MOHAMMED BELLO JIBRIN UBALE YAHAYA ISYAKU ADAMU <p>Nigeria's jobless rate—especially for young people—has been increasing to the point where it is overwhelming and too much to bear in light of the nation's security and socioeconomic problems. Consequently, in order to address security concerns, this paper investigates the government's entrepreneurial option. This was accomplished by compiling secondary data from qualitative and quantitative studies and utilizing the theoretical framework of empowerment theory. The study finds that Nigeria's economy regrettably still has a high rate of youth unemployment, reaching up to 53%, despite the frantic entrepreneurship aimed at ending unemployment. This high rate of youth unemployment is directly linked to the country's growing security issues. It is obvious that insufficient security, erratic power supplies, and other problems must exist before the private sector can get involved in this. Infrastructure needs to be addressed. If the relevant authorities do not act quickly to create jobs, crime will rise and public resentment will grow. Security issues will become the only game in town.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) SOCIAL WORK ROLES AND THE WELLBEING OF ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN IN CALABAR MUNICIPALITY, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA 2024-05-29T14:57:27+00:00 NNANA OKOI OFEM RITA NGOZI OKAFOR LILIAN OTU UBI <p>The main focus of this study was on Social Work Roles and the Wellbeing of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve this, three specific objectives were formulated to guide the study thus: to examine the condition and challenges of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and their wellbeing in Calabar Metropolis; to identify the roles of the government and non-governmental organization towards the wellbeing of orphans and vulnerable children in Calabar metropolis, and to examine the roles of social workers toward the vulnerable and orphan children and their wellbeing in Calabar Metropolis. These specific objectives were further used to formulate research questions and hypothesis for the study. Relevant literatures were reviewed based on the subject under discussion. The study was further supported by two theories: Human Capital theory and John Bowly's Attachment theory. The study employed the cross-sectional research design, the population of the study comprised of 371,022 as the main population of the study area. The sample size for the study was 150 respondents randomly selected from the total population of the study area. The questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. The research utilized the primary and secondary sources of data collection. From the analysis of findings, the following recommendation was made amongst others: Social worker should help using social work skills in the enumeration of the effects associated to orphan and vulnerable children.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) EFFECT OF SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND ON DRUG ADDICTION AMONG PATIENTS IN KARU GENERAL HOSPITAL ABUJA 2024-05-29T15:01:08+00:00 OMOZUSI MERCY OMOSEFE SHALWUL MONICA MIDONG AZORONDU AGBONS ABIGAIL <p><em>The rate of drug addiction has been increasing overtime and it could be traced to some social and economic issues. There is not much study on these issues in relation to drug addiction thus this study was designed to examine the effect of socioeconomic background on drug addiction among patients in Karu general hospital, Abuja. Nigeria. This study employed a quantitative cross-sectional survey research design with a sample size of 82 patients. Data was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation score method with result of the data at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between social background and drug addiction (r= 0.407, P&lt; 0.05), there was also a significant relationship between economic background and drug addiction (r= 0.489, P&lt; 0.05). The study concludes that social background and economic background has effect on drug addiction. Some of the recommendations werecommunity members should participate and get involve in identifying drug abusers and the sellers of such drugs and report to appropriate authority for prompt action; government should work out policies and modalities that will improve the overall economic status of Nigerians and lastly parents should work harder to provide the basic needs of their families.</em></p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) ASSESMENT OF THE ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BORDER INSECURITY USING AHP. A CASE STUDY OF GURIN-FOFURE, ADAMAWA STATE. 2024-05-29T15:04:42+00:00 JOLLY P. M MUAZU H. G. <p><em>Despite the mechanisms put in place to address border insecurity, the challenge still exists on the global scale, which is more pronounced at both regional and local levels. Thus, the study assessed the role of stakeholders in managing border insecurity in Gurin Fufore Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The study highlighted the factors responsible for border insecurity, the role of stakeholders on border insecurity through the measures put in place by the stakeholders and the weight for ranking these roles for managing border insecurity using Group AHP. Delphi method was employed in the selection of participants for the study in the areas affected by border insecurity based on the knowledge of the population and the purpose of the studywith the sample size of 385. This was done in order to select stakeholders which are Police, Custom, Immigration, Army, Community leader and Youth leader in the bordering community who offered reasonable information to the research work. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to analysed the data and arithmetic mean was used to aggregate the relative weights for all the responses of each stakeholder and arrive at the final aggregated weights for each </em>criterion<em> of all the stakeholders. From the study,measure used to manage border insecurity are in these order: routine patrol on border areas (C7) is ranked 1st as the most effective tool, ensuring foreigners have their valid document (C6) is ranked 2nd, Synergy with government security agents (C4) is ranked 3rd, fixed surveillance (C8) is ranked 4th, effective guard and patrol by Pulako (C3) is ranked 5th, investigation (C9) is ranked 6th, addressing the Youth through town hall meetings (C7) is ranked 7th, effective guard and patrol by Vigilantes (C1) is ranked 8th and effective guard and patrol by Local Hunters (C2) is ranked 9th as the least effective. We discovered that some vital means of managing border insecurity such as effective guard and patrol by vigilantes, effective guard and patrol by local hunters, effective guard and patrol by pulako, addressing the youth through town hall meetings weren’t put to play. Hence, stakeholders should make effective use of these neglected measures in handling border insecurity as they play vital roles</em> in managing border insecurity.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) NIGERIA'S FOREIGN POLICY AND TRANSBORDER CRIME: AN OVERIEW 2024-05-29T15:08:38+00:00 OWUDA RASHIDA LAMIDI <p><em>Transnational crime affects countries' internal security and foreign policy in many ways. This study examines Nigeria's foreign policy and transborder crime's considerable impact. West African nation Nigeria faces drug, human, gun, and cybercrime. These criminal operations threaten the nation's security, diplomatic relations, and global reputation. Nigeria's foreign policy has emphasised non-interference, regional collaboration, and international law. However, rising transborder crime has forced Nigeria to change its policies and become more proactive and collaborative internationally. Multifaceted links exist between transborder crime and foreign policy. First, transborder crime in Nigeria affects its economy and international relations. Diplomatic efforts aim to foster economic growth and regional stability. Transborder crime in Nigeria threatens human security, especially owing to human trafficking and illegal migration. The nation's foreign policy has stressed engagement with international institutions and neighbouring nations to address these acts' root causes. Cross-border crime and terrorism further complicate Nigeria's foreign policy. The dissemination of weaponry by criminal trafficking networks boosts insurgent factions. Nigeria works with neighbours and friends to stop the spread of weapons and fight terrorism. These efforts suggest a stronger, more coordinated foreign policy approach to transnational security. Transborder crime considerably and diversely impacts Nigeria's foreign policy. Illegal actions necessitate a planned and flexible diplomatic strategy. Nigeria's response focuses on regional cooperation, economic growth, and security through bilateral and multilateral relations. While fighting transborder crime, the nation's foreign policy evolution shows its commitment to addressing transna</em>tional threats' complex issues.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: THE NIGERIAN AND ANGOLA EXPERIENCE 2024-05-29T15:46:42+00:00 EDIBA SABASTINE UMAR SULEIMAN ZAKARI GEOFFREY NANBAL SHIPURUT <p>Women's political participation is a key indicator of democracy, gender equality, and human development. However, women in Africa face many barriers and challenges to access and exercise their political rights and influence decision-making processes. This paper examines the factors that affect women's political participation and representation in Nigeria and Angola, two African countries with different historical, cultural, and political contexts. The paper address issues such as the Women’s Political Participation: Africa Barometer 2021, the Working Paper on Women’s Political Participation and its Predictors in Northern and Southern Nigeria, the Call for Papers on Women’s Equal and Effective Participation in Political and Public Life, the Report on The Power to Change: Women’s Participation and Representation in Africa, and the Briefs on Women’s Political Participation by UN Women. For the purpose of this paper, information was gathered from documentary sources and analyzed using content analysis. Cultural Modernity Theory propounded by Zygmunt Bauman (2011) was used as a framework of analysis. The finding showed that women participation in politics has increased significantly in Nigeria and Angola. The paper therefore recommends strengthening the implementation and enforcement of affirmative action measures, such as gender quotas, at all levels of government and across all branches of power.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) MAKING VOTESCOUNT IN ELECTION TECHNOLOGY ERA: A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FOR NIGERIA’S FUTURE ELECTIONS TO ENHANCE GLOBAL STANDING 2024-05-29T15:50:55+00:00 SHAIBU, M. T. LANRE OLU-ADEYEMI DAYO VICTOR OWOEYE <p><em>The electoral process, been a recurrent political ceremony, holds central significance within any democratic framework; however, the realization of honest vote counting during elections has presented persistent challenges within the context of Nigeria.Readings from extant literature stronglyrevealed there is consensus forutilization of technologies forvoters’accreditation, voting and results transmission with electoral institutions handling results collation and declaration but this has continue to cast doubt on theintegrity of the electoral processand have undermined the significance of votes as the political environment experienced in the Nigeria's 2023 elections showed that the issue of credibility remain unresolved,underliningthe gap between expectation and election outcome. This paper examines the 2023 election procedures cum the nature of the political climate experienced and frames an Automated Election Management System (AEMS) model credible for promoting conducive politico-climate tooptimise the significance of votes. The qualitative technique was </em>adopted. This<em> paper argues that except the entire election process in Nigeria is automated, votes would still not count in future elections. The fate of democracy, the country’s global standing will remain in doubt and her foreign policy will continually glitch.This paper is significant as it contributes to existing literature on the imperative of automated election processin promoting democratic principles.It equally serves as policy guide for domestic, regional and international interventions on election matters.</em></p> 2024-04-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) AN ASSESSMENT OF PERCEPTION OF THE PEOPLE ON MALARIA PREVENTION AND CONTROL IN DONGA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF TARABA STATE 2024-05-30T16:04:32+00:00 SILAS JOSHUA SUNDAY EMMANUEL BAMISE <p>The study examined household’s knowledge, attitude and practice on Malaria prevention and control in Donga L.G.A of Taraba State. A total of 120 respondents representing 120 households were used for the study. Primary data were generated through administration of structured questionnaire. The types of data used are demographic data, socio-economic, cultural beliefs, political affiliations and prevalent records of malaria in the area. Data analysis was done using tables, percentages, and charts. Chi Square was used for the analysis via micro excels. Findings show that respondents have good knowledge about malaria in the study area. (60%) are men (40%) are female representing households during the research. Households’ knowledge, attitudes and practice on malaria prevention and control were found to vary from household to household based on the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent. However, (33.33%) were age 15-24 years, (35.83%) were age 25-34 years, (17.5%) were age 35-44 years, (12.5%) were 45-54 years and (0.83%) were 55 above. Generally, (78.33%) believed that mosquitoes can transmit malaria to human while (67.5%) of the respondents’ household have mosquitoe nets, also (56.67%) opined that mosquitoes net are often used by the respondents. The study identified other protective practices against mosquito’s bites and further assessed whether such practices do affect insecticide treated net (ITN) usage. The study recommends that in a bit to improve malaria control measures, community members need to be educated on the relationship between mosquitoes and malaria, and the benefits of accepting cost effective preventive measures including early seeking of treatment from the health facilities or health personnel. There is a need for health education programs that will measure the success of the health education message passed to the community and evaluation of the health education provided to assess the impact of the message among the community members.</p> 2024-04-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH OF RAISING GODLY CHILDREN TO FACE PRESENT CHALLENGES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: THE CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE 2024-05-30T16:11:45+00:00 UJATA SHAIBU AMOS LADI UKA UJATA <p><em>The philosophical approach of raising godly children to face present challenges can be seen through the eyes of moral development, character education, and the cultivation of a strong spiritual foundation such that when they grow there will not easily depart or stray away from it.. It involves providing them with the necessary tools and guidance to navigate the complexities of the world while staying true to their moral beliefs and values even among their maters anywhere in the world. One key aspect of this approach is fostering the sense of moral reasoning and critical thinking in them. Encouraging open discussions on ethical and moral values which will help children develop their own moral concepts that informs decision making based on their understanding of right and wrong. This will include teaching them to consider the consequences of their future dreams in life, their actions, empathize with others, and make ethical choices even in difficult circumstances. In which case character education plays a vital role in raising the godly children. Thus instilling virtues such as honesty, integrity, compassion, humility, and resilience. Parents can also do this by modeling these same virtues themselves and reinforcing them through consistent reinforcement through positive discipline and praises for virtuous behaviors. In cultivating strong characters which children are better equipped to navigate the challenges they may face and demonstrate godly traits in their interactions with others. A philosophical approach to raising godly children thus emphasize the importance of spiritual development. This involves fostering a deep connection with a higher power or divine principles. In this case parents can provide religious education, engage in spiritual practices, and create an enabling environment that encourages children to explore and develop their own beliefs. Moreover, it's essential to recognize that present challenges are ever-evolving. Therefore, a philosophical approach requires adaptability and openness to ongoing discussions and exploration. It encourages children to question, seek knowledge, and engage with diverse perspectives that fosters intellectual growth and equips them with the necessary tools to face the complex challenges of the modern world. In summary, the philosophical approach to raising godly children to face present challenges in this present age is mostly based on parent’s efforts to help their children navigate the uncertainties of the world while staying true to their godly values and principles.</em></p> 2024-04-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s) WORK CONDITIONS AND EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE OF TITO YOGURT COMPANY LIMITED MAKURDI BENUE STATE NIGERIA 2024-05-30T16:17:06+00:00 UCHERWUHE SAMUEL IGBABEE AKORGA MAMKPEGA CLEMENT <p>The study examined the Effect of work condition on employees’ performance of Tito yogurt company limited Makurdi Benue State Nigeria. The study specifically sought to establish the effect of work life balance, workload, and safety standards on employees’ performance in Tito yogurt company limited Makurdi Benue State Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted and self-administered questionnaire was used as instrument of data collection for the study. The target population was 212 employees of Tito yogurt company limited Makurdi Benue State Nigeria and a sample of 139 was arrived at using Taro Yamana formula. The findings revealed that there is a positive significant effect of work life balance on employees’ performance of Tito yogurt company limited Makurdi Benue State Nigeria. The result also showed a positive significant effect of workload on employees’ performance of Tito yogurt company limited Makurdi Benue State Nigeria. Lastly, findings revealed a positive relationship between safety standards on employees’ performance in Tito yogurt company limited Makurdi Benue State Nigeria. The study recommended amongst others that management of Tito yogurt company limited Makurdi Benue State Nigeria should strike a balance between work and personal life for employee well-being to make employees think outside the box and contribute new ideas when they feel encouraged and valued.</p> 2024-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s)