ENVIRONMENT AND CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: CAUSES AND TRENDS OF FARMERS – HERDERS CONFLICTS

Authors

  • UMAR ZUBAIRU, PHD Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria
  • TERNA PAISE AGBA, PHD FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF KASHERE, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

Keywords:

Environment, Pastoralism, Conflict, violence

Abstract

The nomadic pastoralists and sedentary farmers’ conflict is one of the reoccurring security challenges Nigeria.  The constant insecurity and overbearing uncertainty which had come to characterise Nigeria’s existence compelled scholars to focus their attention on formulating an all- encompassing explanation of the phenomenon. This paper is a contribution in this direction.  The paper appraises the roles of the environment in the frequent farmers- herders’ conflict which has led to the loss of lives and property in Nigeria.  In so doing, it analyses the nature of the Nigerian environmental factors and its changing dimensions which is claimed to have induced the migration of the nomadic pastoralists in search of pasture and water – a process that has led to recurring conflict with sedentary farming communities.  The paper argued that dispute over environmental resources among pastoralists and farmers is not a new phenomenon in Nigeria.  The conflict has a long and complex historical background. Notwithstanding the scarcity of environmental resources as the basic reason for the conflict, the paper also demonstrated that the proliferation of light arms by non-state actors and communication devices, inefficient state policies, climate change and lack of courage to take difficult but decisive decision by government precipitated these conflicts.  The inter-disciplinary method was used through archival, internet, textbooks as well as oral sources were carefully reinterpreted in the writing of the paper.

Author Biographies

UMAR ZUBAIRU, PHD, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria

DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND DIPLOMATIC STUDIES

TERNA PAISE AGBA, PHD, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF KASHERE, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND DIPLOMATIC STUDIES, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF KASHERE, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

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Published

2023-12-29

How to Cite

ZUBAIRU, U. ., & AGBA, T. P. A. (2023). ENVIRONMENT AND CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: CAUSES AND TRENDS OF FARMERS – HERDERS CONFLICTS. Wukari International Studies Journal, 7(5), 111–121. Retrieved from https://wissjournals.com.ng/index.php/wiss/article/view/256